Free download complete engineering seminar Iontophoresis Seminar Report pdf. Here we are giving you Iontophoresis Seminar and PPT with PDF report. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it. Seminar on Iontophoresis Drug Delivery System .. Reports have appeared in literature showing appreciable levels of certain drugs in underlying deeper.
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The penetration of the uncharged substances e.
Iontophoresis | Seminar Report, PPT, PDF for Mechanical
A for two hours, it seems plausible that by increasing the current of the controller, the concentration of urea removed from the body can be scaled up accordingly1. Depending on the drug used, the steady-state flux ion iontophorseis has been shown to increase with increasing concentration of the solute in the donor compartment that is in the delivery electrode.
The charged drug molecule is repelled from the active electrode into the skin and then into the systemic circulation. Many factors have been shown to affect the results of iontophoresis. This process has already been extensively used as a monitoring device and is recognizable in the commercial device known as the GlucoWatch9.?
Continuous DC current may result in skin polarisation, which can reduce the efficiency of iontophoretic delivery in proportion to the length of current application. The method of iontophoresis was described by Pivati in Finally, the accuracy of the device, while already quite good, needs to be improved before reverse iontophoresis can potentially replace dialysis.
Iontophoresis is based on the general principle that like charges repel each other and rdport charges attract each other. Another method for drug delivery through the skin, called phonophoresis, uses ultrasound instead of an electric current. The advantage of this method over the traditional method of measuring blood sugar is that the GlucoWatch is non-invasive and does not require the pricking of a finger and it can monitor blood sugar over the course of twelve hours7.?
The downsides to this device include the fact that the patient has to continually wear the device, the device weighs ten pounds, which may be heavy for someone who has other medical issues, and the long-term side effects are unknown.
Urea, on the other hand, is an uncharged molecule6 and moves towards either the cathode or anode through a process called electro-osmosis, which is where an EMF is created by iontophorrsis applied potential that drives the flow of the molecule2 Figure 1. The cathodal hyperemia is generally more pronounced and takes more time to disappear than that of the anode.
A of current are sent through the skin when reverse iontophoresis is used in a monitoring capacity2.? An ion of equal charge but of a different type is referred to as a co-ion. Many people who suffer from it have suffered for many years, usually from adolescence.
In anodal iontophoresis positively charged ionsthe electrode orientation is reversed. Today, it is currently being utilized as a method to monitor glucose levels in diabetic patients? Experiments in vivo and invitro gives support for clinical findings that there are small differences in the flux rate following transdermal iontophoresis between males and females, as well as between hairy and hairless skin. The company NxStage Medical has designed a portable dialysis unit that looks almost like a briefcase?
Obviously, negatively charged ions will behave in the same manner. This current should not be applied for more than 3 minutes because of local irritation and burns.
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We think you have liked this presentation. The method of administrating pharmacological drugs semijar iontophoresis became popular at the beginning replrt the 20th century due to the work of Leduc who introduce the word ‘iontotherapy’ and formulated the laws for this process. Application of a positive current from an electrode to a solution applied to a skin surface will drive the positively charged drug ions away from the electrode and into the skin.
Both the positive and negative electrodes produce hyperemia and heat due to the resulting vasodilatation. The pH is of importance for the iontophoretic delivery of drugs. Lontophoresis bulk of deposited ions is found at the site of the active electrode, where they are stored as either soluble or insoluble compound, to be depleted by the sweep of circulating blood. In a rpeort study, reverse iontophoresis was used on the forearm of five healthy individuals and eighteen patients with chronic kidney disease1.
The treatment is not the current itself, but rather the seminat introduced through that current. Galvani and Volta, two well-known scientists working in the 18th century, combined the knowledge that electricity can move different metal ions, and that movements of ions produce electricity.
Are you interested in any one of this Seminar, Project Topics. Regardless of where it is located, hyperhidrosis presents an embarrassing problem to those afflicted with it Hyperhidrosis is also not a temporary condition.
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Until now, the combination LDPM laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and iontophoresis has been used mostly as a diagnostic tool for diseases affecting macro- and microcirculation and the controlling regulatory nerves. At the end of this lecture the student must be able to: Iontophoresis is defined as the introduction by means of a direct electrical current, of ions of soluble salts into the tissues of the body for therapeutic purposes.
The purpose of reverse iontophoresis in this application was to monitor blood urea levels without using invasive testing methods. Iontophoresis reduces intra- and inter- subject variability in deliver rate.
Treatment consists of passing a direct current of significant magnitude and duration in to seinar skin to obstruct the sweat glands. The final barrier is that the pH of the skin must be kept around a neutral value of 7. At a current of 0. We intend to investigate the practicality of using reverse iontophoresis as an alternative to kidney dialysis as a quicker, more efficient, and cheaper treatment for individuals with ESRD.
Placement of the electrodes is dependent on the polarity of the medication being delivered. This practice is as old as medicine itself.