This article provides an up-to-date survey of hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks that leverage on the respective strengths of optical and wireless. A definitive objective of Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) systems is the meeting of different optical and wireless innovations under a solitary base keeping in mind the end. Survey Smoothly Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Accessing Wireless Networks: Convergence and Challenges. Naseer Hwaidi Alkhazaali, Raed Abduljabbar Aljiznawi.
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In addition, it enables the convergence of the optical fiber infrastructure with standard wireless solutions, thus offering a way to integrate dominant wired and wireless technologies in a hybrid access network supporting seamless ubiquitous broadband services. In the latter case, the bimodal nature of FiWi networks provides an opportunity to mitigate the detrimental impact of wireless interferences on the network throughput for peer-to-peer communications between two wireless end-users.
One of the most promising qccess of such a multitier business model is the Swiss Fibre Net of OPENAXS, an association of currently 22 regional electricity utilities throughout Switzerland see also http: In the event of one or more link failures, the affected lightpaths are dynamically reconfigured using the redundant fiber paths of the architecture.
In the case of DTS-insensitive traffic, a path from the ingress router to one of the external buffers is computed. The presented simulation results show that under different network sizes the proposed tabu search heuristic outperforms random and fixed ONU placement schemes in terms surbey achievable network throughput, especially for an increasing number of ONUs.
To solve this optimization problem, the authors applied a tabu search based heuristic, a widely used metaheuristic algorithm for solving combinatorial problems. While copper will certainly continue netwworks play an important role in current and near-term broadband access networks, it is expected that FTTH deployment volume will keep increasing gradually and will eventually become the predominant fixed wireline broadband technology by [ 5 ].
Multipath routing and its implications have been studied in greater detail in [ 54 ]. The high-priority traffic class has QoS requirements with respect to delay and ciwi, while the low-priority traffic class does not have any QoS requirements i. Subsequently, the gateway disseminates the estimated delay throughout the wireless mesh front-end via periodic LSA messages. Access network Wireless mesh network. Simulation results were presented to compare the proposed integrated resource management framework with a conventional resource management scheme that controls the EPON and WiMAX networks separately from each other.
Due to the difficulty and prohibitive costs of supplying optical fiber to all end-user premises as well as the spectrum limitations of wireless access networks, bimodal FiWi netsorks networks fiber-wirwless more attractive than relying on either stand-alone access solution. It has been receiving an increasing amount of attention by other key players, for example, the Government of China most recently.
More precisely, links with higher predicted delays are given higher fiber-wirelses and vice versa. An interesting approach to solve this problem is the use of an RoF network installed along the rail tracks in combination with the so-called moving cell concept [ 20 ]. It was shown by means of simulation that the availability-aware routing algorithm is able wurvey achieve a higher average availability for the selected paths than the shortest path routing, especially at low traffic loads.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey – Semantic Scholar
In addition, DARA performs admission control, where a packet is admitted into the wireless mesh only if the predicted delay along the computed path is below a predetermined threshold. This hybrid FiWi architecture combines optical star and ring networks [ 26 ]. However, this situation is changing rapidly.
With the advent of high-speed IEEE Specifically, to avoid the electronic bottleneck, the generation of RF signals is best done optically. However, inserting an optical distribution system in wireless networks may have a major impact on the performance of medium access control MAC protocols [ 15 ].
Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Broadband Access Networks in an Age of Convergence: Past, Present, and Future
If the overall delay is smaller than a prespecified delay bound the service request is accepted. As we will see shortly, different challenges were addressed such as routing and wireless channel assignment, which can networkd performed completely either in the wireless domain by the base station BS or access point APor by an optical network element, for example, CO or optical line terminal OLT.
The WLAN mesh front-end of FiWi access networks may be used to provide WiFi offloading of rapidly increasing mobile data traffic from cellular networks, thereby avoiding the need for capacity upgrades while at the same time helping reduce the complexity of future mobile networks.
FiWi acccess inquires new methods of optical RF generation exploiting fiber nonlinearities and various modulation techniques. In FiWi networks, traffic may go from wireless end-users to the Internet or from one wireless client to another wireless client.
This trend is expected to become even ffiber-wireless pronounced over the next couple of decades. Beside netwogks scheduling, backhaul sharing is gaining significant importance to enhance the performance of cellular networks overlaid with WiFi offloading hotspots [ 96 ].
More precisely, if the primary gateway fails, then all the paths to that gateway become stale and packets destined for the primary gateway are rerouted through live PGG paths. Note that dependability has many facets and includes several important system properties w as reliability, availability, survivability, and safety. According to [ 92 ], there is a clear trend toward including additional mobility enhancements in future LTE releases to ensure a smooth migration from traditional network controlled to user equipment UE assisted mobility as a remedy for reducing signaling overhead via fiber interconnections between macrocells and small cells.
All of the discussed wireless routing algorithms aim at finding the optimal path through a wireless mesh front-end fiber-wireleas meeting one or more objectives.
Advances in Optics
Access network Search for additional papers on this topic. To measure the network throughput gain in FiWi networks, a linear programming based routing algorithm was proposed in [ 43 ].
An overview of recently proposed energy-efficient architectures as well as energy-efficient MAC and routing protocols for FiWi access networks was provided in [ 67 ]. Toward this end, the authors investigated an energy-aware routing algorithm.
We discuss the different threads of FiWi access networking research and the rationale behind their different design fiber-wrieless.
In RoF networks, RFs are carried over optical fiber links between the CO and multiple low-cost remote antenna units RAUs in support of a variety of wireless applications, for example, microcellular radio systems [ 14 ].
Future FiWi access networks will leverage on acxess PON and WLAN technologies to meet the ever-increasing bandwidth requirements of new and emerging video-dominated applications and services.
In FiWi networks, peer-to-peer traffic can be carried in two ways: The additional transceiver enables ONUs to send data directly to each other across the AWG rather than going through the OLT, resulting in an improved throughput-delay performance under peer-to-peer traffic.
When traffic increases and the utilization of the established lightpaths is low, the load on the existing lightpaths is increased by fiberwireless of load balancing. By combining the capacity of optical fiber networks with the ubiquity and mobility of wireless networks, FiWi networks form a powerful platform for the support and creation of emerging as well as future unforeseen applications and services, for example, telepresence [ 8 ].
After elaborating on fiber-wirless rationale behind the Third Industrial Revolution and its underlying Energy Internetwe will describe in more detail how Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge and help realize the vision of the smart grid and create new exciting opportunities for telecommunication service providers, municipalities, and utilities to roll out dependable low-latency FiWi based smart grid accesss infrastructures and split the value chain into multitier business models.
The integration of solar-powered wireless sensors and acess fiber optic sensors into a PON was experimentally demonstrated in [ 84 ]. DARA is a link-state routing algorithm, where each wireless mesh router and gateway periodically advertises its link conditions i. Note that traffic forwarded along the wireless-optical-wireless path alleviates interferences in the wireless front-end, thereby allowing more traffic to be carried in accesd wireless segment and resulting in an increased network throughput.
Beside cell-based RoF networks, a number of FiWi network networms were proposed, which can be classified based on their wireless access technologies: